- putting a price on water that reflects its scarcity value;
- mandating water efficiency standards; and
- encouraging water conservation practices
How do we tackle the increasing flash floods in Singapore?
• Sentosa Island Beaches (Siloso beach, Palawan beach, Tanjong beach) • Seletar Island Beach • Sembawang Park Beach • Changi Beach • East Coast Park Beach • Pasir Ris Beach • Punggol Beach
(1) Water from Local Catchment (2) Imported Water (3) NEWater from highly-purified reclaimed water (4) Desalinated Water
• The 1st 'tap' Local Catchment, refers to the supply from our local water catchments and reservoirs. • The 2nd 'tap' Imported Water, refers to the import of water from Malaysia under the 1962 Water Agreement. Under the 1962 Water Agreement, Singapore can draw up to 250 million gallons of water a day from the Johor River, and Singapore is obliged to provide Johor with treated water up to 2% of the water we import. The 1962 Water Agreement will expire in 2061. Constructed by PUB under a 1990 agreement with Johor supplementary to the 1962 Water Agreement, the Linggiu Reservoir is located upstream of the Johor River Waterworks and releases water into the Johor River to supplement its flow. This enables abstraction of raw water at the Johor River Waterworks which is owned and operated by PUB for treatment. • Our 3rd 'tap' NEWater, is ultra-clean, high-grade reclaimed water produced from treated used water that is further purified using advanced membrane technologies and ultra-violet disinfection. • Our 4th 'tap' is seawater desalination where freshwater is obtained by removing salt from seawater through the reverse osmosis process. Desalination is the process of turning seawater into drinking water. Singapore currently uses reverse osmosis for its desalination. This process produces pure drinking water by passing seawater through membranes to remove dissolved salts and minerals. Producing desalinated water is energy intensive. Moving ahead, PUB is exploring technology to bring down the energy needed for desalination, such as electro-deionisation and biomimicry. Electro-deionisation is a method that uses an electric field to pull dissolved salts from water. Biomimicry is the mimicking of biological processes by which mangrove plants and euryhaline fish extract freshwater from seawater using small amounts of energy.
What are the main uses of NEWater?
1. Non-Potable Use As it is ultra-clean, NEWater is used mainly for industrial and air-con cooling purposes at wafer fabrication plants, industrial estates and commercial buildings. The biggest users of NEWater are wafer fabrication plants, which require water quality that is even more stringent than water for drinking. 2. Indirect Potable Use
NEWater is also added to our reservoirs to blend with the raw water collected at the reservoirs. The raw water from the
reservoir is then treated at the waterworks before it is being supplied to consumers as tap water. For more information, you may wish to visit the PUB's website here.
Why can’t we introduce NEWater directly into our taps?