Frequently Asked Questions Advanced Search Advanced Search Close Panel All of these words This exact phrase Any of these words Without these words Search within: CAASWhole of Government Expand All Collapse All Aviation Safety1. What are the requirements for an Aircraft Maintenance Licence (AML)? To qualify for an AML, you must meet the following requirements: be at least 21 years of age; be able to read, write and communicate in English to an understandable level necessary for the technical work of an aircraft maintenance engineer; and be able to demonstrate a need to hold the licence (i.e. your application must be supported by an approved aircraft maintenance organisation or a Singapore air operator). In addition, you will need to pass the relevant SAR-66 examinations and demonstrate sufficient experience (with a Schedule of Experience (SOE)) applicable to the category of AML you are applying for. Further details can be found in the Singapore Airworthiness Regulations (SAR) Part 66. 2. How can I apply for an AML? To apply for an AML, you will need to complete the Application for SAR-66 Aircraft Maintenance Licence form and submit it together with the relevant supporting documents listed in the form. 3. What is the validity period of the PPL? The validity of the PPL corresponds with the applicant's age, as follows: <40 years old - valid for 60 months =40 years old but <50 years old - valid for 24 months =50 years old but <60 years old - valid for 12 months =60 years old - valid for 6 months 4. Where can I find the examination syllabus? For the flight crew ground examination syllabus, please refer to this Advisory Circular. For the SAR-66 AML examination syllabus, please refer to Appendix 1 of the Singapore Airworthiness Requirements Part 66. 5. Are there any pre-requisites to be met in order to sit for CAAS examinations? There are no pre-requisites to sit for the CAAS examinations. Simply register for a candidate account at the CAAS Examination Portal, and book a timeslot for your examinations. 6. What is the passing mark for CAAS examinations? The passing mark for the examinations is 75%. 7. How will I be notified of my examination results? You will need to log in to the CAAS Examination Portal to access your examination results. For essay examinations, your results will be released within 3 weeks from the date of your sitting. For all other examinations, your results will be released within 24 hours after the completion of your examinations. 8. What is a professional pilot licence? There are three types of professional pilot licences viz. Commercial Pilot Licence (CPL), Multi-crew Pilot Licence (MPL) and Airline Transport Pilot Licence (ATPL). These are meant for pilots who would like to pursue commercial flying as a career. The privileges under each licence vary as listed below:PrivelegesCommercial Pilot Licence (CPL)Multi-crew Pilot Licence (MPL)Airline Transport Pilot Licence (ATPL)Entitled to fly asPilot-In-Command (PIC)(Single Crew Operation)YesNoYesFor those who have upgraded to an ATPL from an MPL, PIC privileges are not given for Groups A & B aircraft*Entitled to fly asCo-pilot(Multi-crew Operation)YesYesYesEntitled to fly asPilot-In-Command (PIC)(Multi-crew Operation)NoNoYesInstrument RatingNoInstrument Rating is not included and has to be separately soughtYesYes*Group A aircraft: Single-engine aircraft not exceeding 5,700 kg in maximum total massGroup B aircraft: Multi-engine aircraft not exceeding 5,700 kg in maximum total mass 9. What are the requirements for a PPL? In order to obtain a PPL, you would need to meet the following requirements: Be at least 17 years old Pass the Class 2 Medical assessment with the Civil Aviation Medical Board (CAMB)or pass the Class 1 Medical assessment if you are applying for a PPL with Instrument Rating (IR) Pass PPL ground examinations. You may apply for an examination slot at CAAS Examination Portal. Pass PPL flight test. You may download the application form (FC35) or obtain the hardcopy version from the CAAS Licensing office. Achieve the flying experience requirements stipulated in the Singapore Air Safety Publication (SASP) Part 1. 10. What is a Private Pilot Licence (PPL)? The PPL allows pilots to fly a Singapore-registered aircraft, for leisure.The PPL is a license that allows pilots to fly any Singapore-registered aircraft, for leisure purposes. With the PPL, pilots are permitted to fly out of Singapore. 11. When do I need to register an aircraft/helicopter and what is the procedure and documents required for the registration process? Detailed information on registering an aircraft in Singapore can be found in the Singapore Airworthiness Requirements (SAR) (Chapter 1.3). Specifically:The persons qualified to register an aircraft in Singapore are mentioned in Air Navigation Order (ANO) (paragraph 4 sub paragraph 3). The cost to register an aircraft can be found in the ANO 12th Schedule, paragraph 1.There are some aviation companies in Singapore that manage Singapore-registered non-commercial aircraft on behalf of its owners/operators. You may contact the following companies, which are located in Seletar Airport:ST Aerospace Engineering Pte Ltd MAJ Aviation Pte Ltd Hawker Pacific Asia Pte LtdJet Aviation (Asia Pacific) Pte Ltd 12. What is the validity period of the professional pilot licence? The validity of the licence corresponds with the holder's age and type of operation, as follows: 6 months if the licence corresponds with the holder's operation, as follows: = 40 years old and is engaged in single-crew public transport of passengers; or = 60 years old. 12 months for any other caseThe validity of a professional pilot licence starts from the date of issue or renewal of the applicant's Class 1 Medical certification, whichever is earlier. 13. What is a Student Pilot Licence (SPL)? The SPL allows aspiring pilots to undergo flight training on a Singapore-registered aircraft through a CAAS Approved Flying Training Organisation or a flying club, to eventually obtain other pilot licences such as the Private Pilot Licence or Commercial Pilot Licence. 14. How do I convert my foreign professional pilot licence to a Singapore one? You will need to submit the application form and supporting documents to CAAS for evaluation. Your application must be supported by your employer (i.e. a Singapore air operator, Flying Training Organisation, Type Rating Training Organisation or flying club). CAAS only converts foreign Commercial Pilot Licence (CPL) and Air Transport Pilot Licence (ATPL).In general, to convert your foreign professional pilot licence, you must meet the following requirements: Be at least 18 years old for CPL (or 21 years old for ATPL) and below 65 years old. Demonstrate a need to hold a Singapore licence by obtaining a formal letter from a Singapore air operator or approved aviation organisation indicating prospective employment in a flying capacity. Hold a valid foreign professional pilot licence, medical certificate and valid Radiotelephony Licence from an ICAO Contracting State. Pass the appropriate theoretical knowledge examinations (e.g. CPL or ATPL level) prescribed by the foreign licensing authority. Meet the experience requirements stipulated in Chapter 11 of the Singapore Air Safety Publication (SASP) Part 2. As part of the conversion process, you will be required to complete the following certain examinations and tests. More detailed information can be found in Chapter 12 of the Singapore Air Safety Publication (SASP) Part 2. 15. What is a Restricted PPL? A Restricted PPL is issued by CAAS to individuals who are unable to meet the navigation requirements of the PPL syllabus. The holder of the licence is permitted to fly only within Singapore 16. What is the examination format? The examinations are mostly in multiple-choice-question format except for the "M50" module paper (part of the AML examination), which requires candidates to answer in a written essay format. 17. What are the different Aircraft Ratings that PPL holders can obtain? Aircraft ratings are qualifications that allow PPL holders to fly different types of aircraft. As a PPL holder, you may act as a Pilot-in-Command for the following aircraft groups: Group A: Single-engine aircraft not exceeding 5,700 kg in maximum total mass Group B: Multi-engine aircraft not exceeding 5,700 kg in maximum total mass Group C: A specific type of aircraft with a maximum total mass that exceeds 5,700 kgThe specific aircraft rating (A, B or C) you hold will be specified on the PPL. 18. How do I renew my professional pilot licence? You can renew your professional pilot licence electronically through CAPELS. Do note that you are required to hold a valid Class 1 Medical Certificate issued by the Civil Aviation Medical Board, and a valid Certificate of Test (C of T) or Certificate of Experience (C of E) for the relevant aircraft type, in order to renew your licence. 19. What are the requirements for a professional pilot licence? The requirements vary for each licence, as listed below: RequirementCommercial Pilot LicenceMulti-crew Pilot Licence (MPL)Air Transport Pilot LicenceMinimum Age18 years old19 years old20 years oldMedical RequirementPass Class 1 Medical requirements with the Civil Aviation Medical Board (CAMB).Language ProficiencyDemonstrate sufficient command of the English language for radio-telephony communications. The minimum level of proficiency is an "Operational Level" (Level 4) of the ICAO Language Proficiency Rating Scale.Ground ExaminationsPass examinations at the CPL levelPass examinations at the ATPL level if you wish to fly in a multi-crew environmentPass examinations at the ATPL levelPass examinations at the ATPL levelFlying Experience Requirements Meet the flying experience requirements stipulated in Chapter 4 of the Singapore Air Safety Publication (SASP) Part 2.Pass the Test FlightYesYesYes 20. How do I apply for an endorsement of an aircraft type rating on my AML? To apply for an endorsement of an aircraft type rating on your AML, you will need to complete and submit the the application form together with the applicable supporting documents as listed in the form. 21. Where can I find the list of Singapore-registered aircraft and their operators? The list of registered aircraft and their operators can be accessed here. 22. How do I convert a foreign AML to a Singapore AML? To convert a foreign AML to a Singapore AML, you must meet certain pre-requisites, as well as submit the AML application form together with the necessary supporting documents. You may refer to this Advisory Circular for the details. 23. How do I convert my foreign PPL to a Singapore PPL? You will need to submit the application form and supporting documents to CAAS for evaluation. In order to convert your foreign PPL, you must meet the following requirements: Hold a valid foreign PPL issued by an ICAO Contracting State. The PPL must remain valid throughout the conversion process. Be certified to at least an "Operational Level" (Level 4) on the ICAO Language Proficiency Rating Scale. Pass the following examinations and tests: Class 2 Medical requirements or Class 1 Medical requirements if a PPL with Instrument Rating (IR) is sought; PPL Air Law and Operational Procedures examination; PPL Human Performance examination; and PPL flight test All the requirements above have to be completed within a 6-month period.The detailed requirements can be found in the Singapore Air Safety Publication Part 1 24. How do I renew my PPL? You can renew your PPL electronically through CAPELS. Do note that you are required to hold a valid Class 2 Medical Certificate issued by the Civil Aviation Medical Board (CAMB), and a valid Certificate of Experience (C of E) or Certificate of Test (C of T) for the relevant aircraft group i.e. Group A, in order to renew your PPL. 25. Where are the examinations conducted? The examinations are conducted at the CAAS Examination Centre in the Singapore Aviation Academy. The address is:Singapore Aviation Academy1 Aviation DriveRoom M1-25Singapore 499867 26. What is the validity period of the SPL? The validity of the SPL corresponds with the applicant's age, as follows: <40 years old - valid for 60 months =40 years old but <50 years old - valid for 24 months =50 years old but <60 years old - valid for 12 months =60 years old - valid for 6 monthsThe validity of the SPL starts from the date of issue or renewal of the applicant's Class 2 Medical certification, whichever is earlier. The maximum age for holding an SPL is 65 years old. 27. How do I book an examination? You can book your examination using the CAAS Examination Portal. You can find the examination schedule in the portal as well. 28. How can I renew my AML? You may renew your AML by submitting the Licence Renewal form to CAAS, together with the renewal fee (stated in the form). You may make payment by credit card or a crossed cheque made payable to the "Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore". If your AML has expired, please refer to this Advisory Circular for the requirements and process to renew it. 29. My SAR-66 AML has lapsed. Is it still possible to renew my licence? There may be additional requirements to be satisfied for the renewal of a lapsed SAR-66 AML. Please refer to the Advisory Circular (AC66-11) for the requirements and process to renew a lapsed SAR-66 AML. 30. What are the requirements for a SPL? You have to be at least 16 years old (but below 65 years old) and have passed the Class 2 Medical assessment with the Civil Aviation Medical Board (CAMB)). Once you have passed the medical assessment, submit the completed Application for Student Pilot License form together with your supporting documents to:My PEL Hub, Safety Policy & Planning DivisionCivil Aviation Authority of Singapore Singapore Changi Airport Terminal 2 South Finger Pier Level 3 #038-035 Singapore 819643 31. When should I renew my AML? You may renew your AML as early as 3 months before its expiry. However, do take note to submit your renewal at least 2 weeks before its expiry. 32. How do I renew my Certificate of Experience (C of E)? You can renew your C of E by flying a minimum of 5 hours, of which 2 hours must be under the instruction of a Flying Instructor. The flight(s) must be completed within the 12 months preceding the date of expiry of a C of E or Certificate of Test (C of T).To apply for the renewal of your C of E for your PPL, you should submit the Application Form for Renewal of Certificate of Experience together with your certified correct logbook entries to:My PEL Hub, Safety Policy & Planning DivisionCivil Aviation Authority of Singapore Singapore Changi Airport Terminal 2 South Finger Pier Level 3 #038-035 Singapore 819643If your C of E has lapsed, you are required to pass the PPL flight test for renewal. 33. Is it mandatory to register aircraft/helicopters operating in Singapore with CAAS? It is not mandatory for aircraft/helicopters to be operated in Singapore airspace to be registered in Singapore. However, the aircraft/helicopter must be registered with an International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Contracting State and have a valid Certificate of Airworthiness. 34. What is ELMeRS? ELMeRS is the acronym for the Electronic Licensing Medical Records System. It is serves as the one-stop e-portal for all matters relating to medical fitness certification (termed as Medical Assessment) for Flight Crew or Air Traffic Controller (ATC) licence holders. 35. Which Medical Assessment Class (MAC) should I apply for? There are 3 MACs. The required MAC for the respective licences are as follows: 1) Class 1 - for Air Transport Pilot Licence, Commercial Pilot Licence, Multi-crew Pilot Licence, Private Pilot Licence (PPL) with Instrument Rating 2) Class 2 - for PPL, Student Pilot Licence & Flight Engineer's Licence 3) Class 3 - for Air Traffic Control Officers & Probationary Air Traffic Control Officers You may apply for more than 1 MAC if necessary. For more information, you may refer to the information published on the CAAS website under Flight Crew Licensing. 36. Do I have to pay a fee to obtain a Medical Assessment from CAAS? A fee is payable to the CAAS on application for a Medical Assessment relating to pilot licence applicants/holders. This is referred to as the 'Fee for Medical Evaluation' in paragraph 12(2)(h) Air Navigation Order, Twelfth Schedule. This fee is to be paid online when you apply for a Medical Assessment via the ELMeRS portal.You will have to pay your Designated Medical Examiner (DME) separately for the services provided in conducting the medical examinations and investigations for you. The DME's charges are not under the purview of CAAS. 37. How do I obtain an English Language Proficiency endorsement? If you do not have the English Language Proficiency endorsement in your Singapore licence, you will have to undergo an English Language Screening for Level 6 proficiency, or a sit for a formal Aviation English Competency Test (AECT). 38. How is the English Language Screening conducted? The English Language Screening is conducted by CAAS-appointed language screeners within the air operators, approved Flying Training Organisations, and flying clubs in Singapore.If you are assessed to be below the required language proficiency level, you will be required to sit for the Aviation English Competency Test (AECT). 39. How do I lift the navigation restriction in my Restricted PPL? You may submit an application for a PPL (without navigation restrictions), if you have completed at least 5 hours of solo flying on cross-country flights. The 5 hours of solo flying should include a flight not less than 150 nautical miles, during which the holder has to make two intermediate stops with a day. One of the two stops made must be at least 50 nautical miles away from the aerodrome of departure. The flight must be completed within 6 months before the date of licence application. 40. When should I apply for a Medical Assessment for renewal of my licence? You are given a window of 45 days before the expiry of your current licence to initiate your Medical Assessment, to ensure it will be processed and issued on time for the licence renewal. You are encouraged to do so as early as possible within the 45-days window. If you undergo your medical examination more than 45 days before the expiry of your current licence, the validity period of your new certificate will begin on the month preceding the current expiry. If you undergo your medical examination after the expiry of the current licence, the validity period of your new certificate will begin on the date when the examination is conducted. 41. What does the fee for medical evaluation cover? The fee for medical evaluation covers the evaluation and certification of the applicant’s fitness (or otherwise) to be issued the class of Medical Assessment applied for. If the applicant is issued the Medical Assessment, the fee would also cover any follow up monitoring or ad hoc requirement needed by the holder to maintain his/her Medical Assessment during its period of validity. These requirements include consultations, aeromedical review for clearance to resume duties after a decreased medical fitness period, functional evaluation, Special Board for accredited medical conclusions, and any other necessary interventions undertaken by the Medical Assessors or Aviation Medicine Physician in the Civil Aviation Medical Board. The fee does not cover any medical or laboratory investigations required for the above listed processes. 42. Where can I embark on a training course to obtain a professional pilot licence? You may undergo training with any of the CAAS-approved Flying Training Organisations. 43. I am a Singapore licence holder but am intending to pursue my career overseas. The foreign licensing authority has requested for a letter from CAAS to authenticate my Singapore licence. What is the process to get such a letter? The foreign licensing authority will need to provide CAAS with the following information, via email to email@example.com:Name of licence holder;Licence type and licence number;Name and email address of the liaison officer/point of contact from the foreign licensing authority. 44. Can I still renew my Medical Assessment certificate after it has expired? Yes, you can renew a lapsed Medical Assessment within 12 months from its expiry by undergoing a 'Renewal' licensing medical examination. However, once the Medical Assessment has expired for more than 12 months, you will need to apply for an 'Initial' grant of Medical Assessment by undergoing an 'Initial' licensing medical examination.Please be reminded that licence holders shall not exercise the privileges of their licences unless they hold a valid Medical Assessment certificate. 45. How often do I have to pay this fee? You will need to pay the fee for medical evaluation every time you submit an application for Medical Assessment. 46. What are the qualification requirements for the nominated certifying staff? The Certifying Staff should meet the following requirements: possess appropriate qualifications and knowledge and at least one year of recent quality control experience in a related aviation field; possess knowledge of the appropriate Singapore aviation legislation. Knowledge of aviation legislation may be demonstrated by passing the CAAS' examination on Airworthiness Administration (L11 or L12) or Aviation Legislation (M10) or by attending L11 or M10 courses conducted by an approved maintenance training organisation; hold a position in the quality department of the organisation. 47. How do I renew my SPL? You can renew your SPL electronically through CAPELS. Do note that you are required to hold a valid Class 2 Medical Certificate issued by the Civil Aviation Medical Board (CAMB) in order to renew your SPL. 48. What are the qualification requirements for the nominated Quality Manager of a SAR-145 Approved Organisation? The nominated Quality Manager should meet the following requirements:a) Possess at least 2 years' experience in quality assurance in a related aviation environment.b) Pass the CAAS Aviation Legislation examination paper.c) (For organisations holding an 'A' class rating) Hold an aircraft maintenance engineer's license (or its equivalent)recognised by CAAS He/She should also preferably hold a relevant degree or diploma in a relevant discipline.Note: For overseas organisations, CAAS typically accepts the nomination of a Quality Manager approved by the National Aviation Authority. 49. Why is there a need for to pay the fee for medical evaluation to CAAS when I apply for a Medical Assessment? The fee for medical evaluation is a regulatory fee levied on applicants to cover the cost for CAAS to perform the medical evaluation, certification and oversight activities for the issuance, renewal and maintenance of the Medical Assessment applied for. This fee is set out in Paragraph 12(2)(h) of the Twelfth Schedule of the Air Navigation Order. 50. Where is the CAAS Personnel Licensing Office located at? My PEL Hub is located at Singapore Changi Airport Terminal 2, South Pier Level 3, #038-035. You may refer to the map for a visual guide to My PEL Hub. Our mailing address is:My PEL Hub, Safety Policy & Planning DivisionCivil Aviation Authority of Singapore Singapore Changi Airport Terminal 2 South Finger Pier Level 3 #038-035 Singapore 819643 51. Where can I find the application forms for licensing matters? Flight Crew LicensingFor the following applications and matters related to flight crew licensing, please visit CAPELS:- Initial Licence Applicationso Student Pilot Licence (SPL)o Private Pilot Licence (PPL)o Commercial Pilot Licence (CPL)o Multi-crew Pilot Licence (MPL)o Airline Transport Pilot Licence (ATPL) - Endorsement of Ratings o Addition of Aircraft/Group Ratingso Application for Mixed Fleet Flyingo Reactivation of Lapsed Aircraft/Group Ratings - Renewal of Licence- Replacement of Licence- Change of Licensee Particulars- Submission of Test Results by Examiners- Application for Flight TestFor other flight crew licensing matters, please click here.Aircraft Maintenance LicensingFor applications and matters related to aircraft maintenance licensing, please click here. 52. Are liquids, aerosols and gels allowed in hand carry luggage? There are restrictions on the carriage of liquids, aerosols and gels in cabin baggage based on recommendations issued by the International Civil ICAO. For more information, you may refer to the guidance provided by the Changi Airport Group. 53. Can I bring a toy gun in my hand carry luggage for my flight? CAAS does not regulate carriage of toy guns in hand carry luggage. You are advised to check with your airline when purchasing your tickets or when checking in at the airport. 54. Are operators required to apply for Munitions of War permit to transport consignments of Division 1.4S (explosives) used for commercial purposes (e.g. for mining or aircraft use)? For an airline holding a Dangerous Goods permit from CAAS: The airline is not required to obtain a Munitions of War permit from CAAS as the CAAS Dangerous Goods permit would suffice for such consignments. The Munitions of War permit is not required for explosives which are not designed for use in warfare or against persons.For an airline NOT holding any Dangerous Goods permit from CAAS: The airline is required to obtain a CAAS Dangerous Goods permit for consignments of Division 1.4S as they are classified as Dangerous Goods. However, the Munitions of War permit is not required for explosives which are not designed for use in warfare or against persons. 55. What are the accepted modes of payment? Payment can be made by credit card (VISA and MasterCard). We do not accept payment by Nets or other credit cards (e.g. American Express, Diners Club etc). 56. What are the operating hours of the personnel licensing office? Our office is open during these times:Day Time Monday to Friday0900 hrs to 1200 hrs1400 hrs to 1700 hrsEve of New Year, Chinese New Year and Christmas during Monday to Friday0900 hrs to 1145 hrsSaturday, Sunday and Public HolidaysClosed 57. How often does the CAAS increase the fee for medical evaluation? The fee for medical evaluation is reviewed at least once every three years in accordance with the Ministry of Finance requirement. However, the CAAS would only allow an increase in the fee when there is justifiable increase in the cost of supporting the Medical Assessment system. 58. Where can I obtain more information about the carriage of Dangerous Goods or Munitions of War by air? More information on the carriage of Dangerous Goods and Munitions of War can be found here. Passengers, travel agents, shippers and cargo agents may also approach airlines for more information on the carriage of Dangerous Goods and Munitions of War by air; or send any enquiries to CAAS_dangerousgoods@caas.gov.sg. 59. What is being assessed during the Aviation English Competency Test (AECT)? The Aviation English Competency Test (AECT) is a test administered by CAAS, where CAAS-authorised language testers assess your English proficiency through scenario-based dialogues. The testers will observe your proficiency in general English conversations, as well as in radiotelephony communications. 60. How do I register for the AECT? The AECT is held at the Regional Language Centre (RELC). Please visit RELC's website to register for the AECT, as well as check the test dates. 61. What are the qualification requirements for the nominated design signatory? The Design Signatory should meet the following requirements: possess professional and technical qualifications, and knowledge appropriate for the activity; and at least 5 years of recent engineering experience (one year of this experience should be on engineering work on civil aircraft and in a field similar to that for which the approval is held);possess knowledge of the appropriate Singapore aviation legislation and airworthiness design standards as listed in Singapore Airworthiness Requirements, Subpart I. Knowledge of aviation legislation may be demonstrated by passing the CAAS' examination papers on Airworthiness Administration (L11), or Aviation Legislation (M10) or by attending L11 or M10 courses conducted by an approved maintenance training organisation; hold a position of sufficient authority in the organisation to ensure adequate control over designs within the relevant area of responsibility. 62. Can spare lithium batteries and power banks be carried in check-in baggage? Spare lithium batteries, including power banks, containing lithium batteries are not permitted to be carried in check-in baggage. They must be carried in carry-on (hand carry) baggage into the cabin. Spare lithium batteries must also be individually protected by insulating terminals to prevent short circuits, e.g. by taping over exposed terminals or placing each battery in a separate plastic bag or protective pouch. 63. Which entity (shipper, freight forwarder or airline) should apply for the Dangerous Goods / Munitions of War permits from CAAS? Prior to the transportation of Dangerous Goods / Munitions of War, the airline is required to apply for the Dangerous Goods / Munitions of War permit(s) from CAAS. 64. I have read the instructions on the DMF page but am unsure if I need to notify CAMB of my recent medical issue. What should I do? You should visit your DME for a consultation as the DME will be able to advise you accordingly. Meanwhile, you should not exercise the privileges of your licence until you have clarified your doubts with your DME. 65. How would I know if the Specialist Medical Report I am submitting is acceptable to CAMB? Any Medical Report that is submitted to CAAS forms the legal evidence on which your Medical Assessment is determined. Hence, the CAAS will not accept reports that are lacking in pertinent information for the Medical Assessment. Do communicate the following guidelines to your treating physician to ensure that the report adheres to them: If a current/latest medical/investigation report is required, it has to be dated within 90 days prior to submission. Older reports can be submitted for the purpose of providing historical information about your condition. Handwritten reports are acceptable only if they are legible and contains proofs of authenticity, e.g. clinic stamp, physician stamp, physician MCR number, clinic address, etc. The medical report is to contain adequate details on the following: Comprehensive information (clinical and investigations) during presentation of condition, subsequent progress and trend, and latest status of the medical condition. The treatment and/or surgical procedures administered for the condition Current medications, therapy and follow up plan. Comments on prognosis or risk of incapacitating events due to the primary condition The medical report is not to contain any opinion of your aeromedical fitness unless the treating physician is accredited as an Aviation Medicine Physician in the Specialist Registry of the Ministry of Health. 66. How does CAAS determine the quantum of the fee for medical evaluation? The CAAS adopts the Activity Based Costing approach where all costs that are specific to Medical Assessment activity such as medical evaluation, certification and maintenance processes and the oversight of the Medical Assessment system are computed into the fee. The costs include the implementation and maintenance of the IT system, the Electronic Licensing Medical Records System (ELMeRS), that supports the processes. 67. Are airlines transporting Dangerous Goods / Munitions of War while transiting through Singapore required to obtain the Dangerous Goods / Munitions of War permit from CAAS? Yes, airlines transporting Dangerous Goods and Munitions of War to, from or through Singapore must apply to CAAS for a Dangerous Goods or Munitions of War permit respectively. More information can be found in the Air Navigation Order (specifically paragraphs 50D and 50C). 68. If an airline had already obtained an authorisation from its State of the operator to carry Dangerous Goods, does CAAS still require the airline to apply for a Dangerous Goods permit? Airlines must apply for a Dangerous Goods permit from CAAS in order to carry Dangerous Goods as cargo into and out of Singapore. Application forms can be downloaded here. 69. What are the qualification requirements for the nominated Quality Manager of a SAR-21 Approved Organisation? The Quality Manager should be a senior staff who has the responsibility for internal quality assurance. He should have direct access to the accountable manager on matters affecting safety. This person should also meet the following additional requirements: possess knowledge of appropriate Singapore aviation legislation, which may be demonstrated by passing the CAAS' examination papers on Airworthiness Administration (L11) or Aviation Legislation (M10) or by attending L11 or M10 courses conducted by an approved maintenance training organisation; and have a minimum of two years of experience in quality assurance or equivalent; and have at least two years of relevant production experience*. * Note: (c) is only applicable to Quality Managers for SAR-21 approved production organisations. 70. What are the qualification requirements for the nominated certifying staff? Please refer to the following Advisory Circulars for the qualification requirements for nominated certifying staff:a) Advisory Circular AC 145-2 Initial Qualification Requirements for Certifying Staff.b) Advisory Circular AC 145-8 Authorisation of Line Maintenance Certifying Staff.c) Advisory Circular AC 66-9 Acceptance of Foreign Aircraft Maintenance Licenses for SAR-145 Maintenance Facilities outside Singapore.The Advisory Circulars can be obtained here. 71. Some articles and substances meeting the criteria for classification as Dangerous Goods may be transported without a Dangerous Goods shipper's declaration. Are these articles and substances still considered as Dangerous Goods? Although certain Dangerous Goods (such as dry ice used as a refrigerant for non-dangerous goods items, or those meeting the requirements for Dangerous Goods in excepted quantities) may be transported without a Dangerous Goods shipper's declaration, they are still classified as Dangerous Goods according to the regulations. Thus they must be declared on the airway bill, and handled and transported according to the instructions within the Air Navigation Order and ICAO Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air. Authorisation from the State of the operator is required for airlines intending to transport such Dangerous Goods. The airline will also be required to apply for a Dangerous Goods permit from CAAS to transport such Dangerous Goods to and from Singapore. 72. If an airline intends to carry Munitions of War (rifles and guns) not classified as Dangerous Goods and without any ammunition, which permit should the airline apply for? The airline should apply for Munitions of War permit only. The Dangerous Goods permit is not applicable.Note: Under the Arms and Explosives Act of the Singapore Police Force, an Arms and Explosives (A&E) licence is required for shippers or consignees who wish to export or import arms and ammunition from or into Singapore. For more information, please refer to the A&E licence page in the Singapore Police Force website. 73. Do I need to apply for a Munitions of War permit if I intend to check-in my sporting weapon and ammunitions in my checked baggage for my flight to or from Singapore? The Munitions of War permit is only applicable to airlines who wish to transport Munitions of War as cargo. It is not applicable to Munitions of War carried by passengers. However, if you wish to carry weapons and ammunitions to or from Singapore in checked baggage, you should seek authorisation from the Police Licensing and Regulatory Department of the Singapore Police Force. You may refer to the Singapore Police Force website for more information. You should also notify your airline at the time of ticket purchase or prior to arrival at the airport of your intention to carry weapons or ammunitions in your checked baggage. 74. Why do I have to pay another fee to the Designated Medical Examiner (DME)? The fee for medical evaluation paid to the CAAS does not cover the professional and investigation fees charged by the DME. The DME has to collect his/her professional fee as well as any investigation fees from the applicant directly. The DME's fees and prices are not determined by the CAAS. 75. If a Munitions of War article is also classified as Dangerous Goods, which permit should airlines apply for? Airlines must apply for both Dangerous Goods and Munitions of War permits. 76. Will I be issued with a receipt for the payment of the fee for medical evaluation? Yes. A softcopy receipt will be generated for you by ELMeRS upon the successful payment of the fee for medical evaluation made online during the application process. You can find a copy of the receipt in the “Documents” tab within your Profile section in ELMeRS. 77. What items are permitted for carriage on board an aircraft? The list of items that can be carried on board an aircraft can be found on the CAAS website or the respective airlines' website. Some examples are as follows: Portable medical and electronic devices such as cameras, mobile phones, laptops, tablets such as iPads.Spare lithium batteries (including power banks) for electronic devices. Passengers are not allowed to carry more than 2 and they must be individually protected to prevent short circuits. Toiletries and cosmetics such as hair sprays, perfumes and medicines containing aerosols, alcohol or liquids provided that each container does not exceed 100ml and the total quantity in all the containers does not exceed 1 litre. All the containers should be placed in a transparent re-sealable plastic bag which must be completely sealed.Alcoholic beverages provided they are in retail packaging and do not exceed 70% alcohol by volume. 78. Do Dangerous Goods training service providers and Dangerous Goods instructors require approval from CAAS to conduct Dangerous Goods training in Singapore? To ensure that shippers, operators and its agents receive Dangerous Goods training in accordance with the regulations, service providers intending to offer Dangerous Goods training are required to seek approval from CAAS for its Dangerous Goods training programme. CAAS does not grant approvals to Dangerous Goods instructors. However, when granting training programme approvals to service providers, CAAS will verify the qualifications of its nominated instructors against the requirements in the regulations, and specify in the letter of approval the instructors qualified to conduct the approved training programmes. 79. What is the correct bracing position for an emergency? The bracing position will be dependent on the seat location. Passengers should always remember to keep their seat belt fastened, the seat back upright and the tray table, video screen and foot-rest stowed.Passengers are advised to pay attention to the safety instructions given by cabin crew, and practise the brace method as directed. If in doubt, always ask for guidance or refer to the airlines' safety briefing card. Airlines in Singapore are required to provide information on the correct bracing method for passenger guidance in the safety briefings and/or safety information card. Always review the bracing methods before each take-off and landing, taking note of the following general guidelines:For seats with ample leg room (seat or partition in front of you is beyond reach): Sit as far back as possible; Place feet together flat on the floor as far back toward the seat as possible; Lean forward as far as possible with your chest as close as possible to the knees; Place hands on top of hear or wrap arms around or behind legs; and Always keep your head as low as possible and always remain in bracing position until directed otherwise by the cabin crew membersFor seats with limited leg room (seat or partition in front of you is within reach):Sit as far back as possible; Place feet together flat on the floor as far back toward the seat as possible; Lean forward as far as possible; Bring head towards seatback of the seat in front or any sturdy partition that may be in front of your seat; Place hands on top of one another and on the top of your head or either on top of the seat in front or against the sturdy partition; Cradle head in folded arms, keeping the arms as close as possible to the sides of your face; and Always keep your head down and cradled in your arms and always remain in bracing position until directed otherwise by the cabin crew member.These are general bracing techniques. Airlines' cabin crew, when required, will provide detailed guidance to passengers on the bracing methods, bearing in mind the specific needs of some passengers' e.g. pregnant mothers or mothers with infants. 80. Are passenger safety briefings similar for all aircraft types? Passenger safety briefings may be similar in the compulsory topics that must be covered in the briefing but information will vary from one aircraft type to another. Therefore, it is important to pay attention to the passenger safety briefing for every flight.You may find more information on Passenger Safety Briefing in Air Operator Certificate Requirements (Chapter 7 Paragraph 3.1). 81. Why are there differing conditions for the usage of Portable Electronic Devices (PEDs) across different airlines? Passengers are permitted to use PEDs on board the aircraft. However, airlines may apply a more restrictive policy on the use of PEDs and the permissible times, conditions and limitations of use. For further information on the regulations, please refer to the Air Operator Certificate Requirements (Chapter 7 Paragraph 2.8).The usage of PEDs onboard is generally safe on most aircraft types as verified by aircraft and PED manufacturers who have performed analysis on their usage. Before airlines may allow the usage of PEDs, they must confirm that their aircraft can safely handle interference from PEDs. Medical PEDs such as Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs), Portable Oxygen Concentrators (POCs) and positive airway pressure devices (such as CPAP, BiPAP, etc) may be permitted for all phases of flight. You are advised to check with your airline before you travel. Passengers are advised to pay attention to the airlines' on-board announcements for instructions and limitations on the use of PEDs. Information on the airlines' PED policy may also be found in their safety information cards, in-flight magazines and on their website. 82. What items are permitted for carriage on board an aircraft? The list of items that can be carried on board an aircraft can be found on the CAAS website or the respective airlines' websites. Some examples of items permitted for carriage are as follows: Portable medical and electronic devices such as cameras, mobile phones, laptops, tablets such as iPads.Spare lithium batteries (including power banks) for electronic devices. Passengers are not allowed to carry more than two and they must be individually protected to prevent short circuits. Toiletries and cosmetics such as hair sprays, perfumes and medicines containing aerosols, alcohol or liquids, provided that each container does not exceed 100ml and the total quantity in all the containers does not exceed 1 litre. All the containers should be placed in a transparent re-sealable plastic bag which must be completely sealed. For more information, you may refer to the guidance provided by the Changi Airport GroupAlcoholic beverages in retail packaging and which do not exceed 70% alcohol by volume. 83. Is the fee for medical evaluation refundable if I am not able to proceed with the medical examination? Yes, the fee for medical evaluation is refundable if the CAAS has not received your medical examination report from the DME for processing and evaluation. 84. Can I get reimbursement for the fee for medical evaluation? The reimbursement will depend on the policy of your prospective/current employer. 85. I need to initiate an Aeromedical Review to seek clearance to resume duties. Do I have to pay CAAS for this? No, the CAAS does not levy an additional fee for processing the Aeromedical Review. However, your DME would be charging a professional fee for conducting the aeromedical review submission for you. 86. Can I carry Unmanned Aircraft Systems (commonly known as drones) in my baggage? Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) containing rechargeable lithium batteries (not exceeding 100 watt-hour capacity each) may be carried in your baggage. If the batteries are installed in the UAS, it may be carried in both checked or hand-carry baggage. However, if the batteries are removed, or if you are intending to carry spare batteries, such batteries must be carried in hand-carry baggage only. Spare batteries must also be individually protected by insulating terminals to prevent short circuits, e.g. by taping over exposed terminals or placing each battery in a separate plastic bag or protective pouch. 87. How do I amend my personal particulars in the licence? For flight crew licence holders, please visit CAPELS and click on the "Update Details" tab to amend your particulars. You will be required to upload supporting document(s) (where applicable) for our verification: Particulars to be amended Document required Name Deed poll / NRIC / Passport Passport No. Passport NRIC No. NRIC Nationality Passport / NRIC Postal Address NRIC / Documentary Evidence of Residential Address Email Address None Mobile / Home phone no. None Photo Passport-sized photo For aircraft maintenance licence holders, please submit the relevant hardcopy application form with the necessary supporting document(s) to CAAS for verification. 88. What is the difference between a major and minor modification or repair? A major modification or repair is one that might appreciably affect weight, balance, structural strength, performance, power plant operation, flight characteristics or other qualities affecting airworthiness; or one that is not done according to accepted practices or elementary operations. All other modifications or repairs are categorised as "minor".Additional information can be found in Advisory Circular AC21-1(2), including the detailed criteria for the classification of major and minor modification or repair in Appendix A. 89. Where can I find the various application fees for the SAR-66 Aircraft Maintenance Licence (AML) and Flight Crew Licence (FCL)? These fees can be found in the Air Navigation Order Twelfth Schedule Paragraphs 11 and 12. 90. Why must window shades be kept open during taxi, take-off and landing? Window shades are required to be kept open during taxi, take-off and landing for the following reasons: To allow cabin crew a quicker and clearer view of the developing conditions and/or dangers outside the aircraft during an emergency. To allow passengers a clear view of what is happening outside the aircraft:so as to quickly alert the crew members, should they notice an emergency or anything out of the ordinary, (e.g. sparks coming out of the wing area, fuel leaks, fire in the engine, snow build-up on the wings, etc.) so as to have a better awareness of what is happening outside the aircraft during an emergency and be able to better orientate themselves, keeping clear of danger. To allow rescuers, in an emergency, to clearly see the inside of the aircraft cabin so that they can better assess the overall situation. 91. Where can I find help to answer the medical questionnaire in the application for Medical Assessment? The medical questionnaire in the application for Medical Assessment process is named the Health Event Declaration (HED). If you are uncertain about any part of the HED, please answer them to the best of your knowledge in order to complete your online application. Your DME will review your answers with you as part of the Licensing Medical Examination (LME) process. Please do take that chance to clarify any doubts and seek your DME's guidance before he/she confirms the information declared in the HED for your signing as a legal declaration. 92. What are the safety regulations in place for toddlers onboard? For the safety of toddlers, during the following phases of flight (taxi, take off and landing) and turbulent weather: Toddlers below the age of two are to be properly secured in a child restraint device; and Toddlers aged two years and above are to be properly secured in their seats by safety belts (with diagonal shoulder strap, where required to be carried) or safety harnesses. You are also advised to check with the airlines if you require more information on the types of child restraint systems. 93. Am I allowed to place luggage exceeding 10kg in the overhead compartment (for budget airlines)? The weight limit of hand luggage that can be carried into the cabin by each passenger is set by the airlines. However, the total weight of the hand luggage within each luggage compartment, must not exceed the weight limits of the compartment. CAAS requires airlines to ensure that loading instructions and training be provided to its staff on ensuring that weight limitation of each overhead compartment are adhered to; and how the hand luggage are to be stowed such that emergency exits and aisles are kept clear. You are advised to check with your airlines on the weight limit of your hand luggage.For more information, please refer to Air Operator Certificate Requirements (AOCR) (Chapter 7 Paragraph 2.5). 94. Are airlines allowed to leave the seats at overwing emergency exits/self-help exits empty? Primary exits are the floor level exit doors manned by the cabin crew. Overwing emergency exits (also known as self-help exits) are exits that are not at floor level. They are alternative exits which can be used if there are passengers (briefed by the cabin crew on the operation of the exit) seated adjacent to them. In line with international practice, these exits are not required to be manned. Airlines have the discretion to manage the seating of their passengers at such exits as long as they meet CAAS' requirements.More details can be found in the Cabin Safetypage of the CAAS website or the Air Operator Certificate Requirements (Chapter 7 Paragraph 2.2 and 2.3). 95. What are self-help exits and who can be allocated these seats? Some aircraft are equipped with emergency exits located at the wing areas of the aircraft, also known as overwing emergency exits or self-help exits. These type of emergency exits may not be manned. Only passengers who appear capable of operating and/or are willing to assist with the operation of the exit can be allocated the seats at self-help exits and they will receive a safety briefing on the exit operation before the take-off.For more information, please refer to the Air Operator Certificate Requirements. 96. Why must lifevests be inflated just before exiting the aircraft during an emergency landing on water? There are several reasons why lifevests are to be inflated just before exiting the aircraft: Inflating life vests within the cabin will create hindrances and slow down the evacuation of passengers during an emergency. Passengers may not be able to manoeuvre through smaller emergency overwing exits with their inflated life vests. Also, the life vests may also become damaged in the process and will not be able to serve their purpose in water. Inflated life vests are also very stiff and will keep passengers' necks in an upright position, impeding their ability to brace on impact. If a cabin becomes engulfed with rising water during an emergency landing on water, passengers may become trapped inside a cabin as an inflated lifevest will prevent a passenger from being able to dive underwater to reach exits. 97. What are the penalties for smoking in an aircraft? Smoking is strictly prohibited on Singapore-registered aircraft. Passengers, if found guilty, could face a fine (not exceeding $100,000) or imprisonment (not exceeding 5 years) or both. Passengers are also reminded that the use of e-cigarettes is also banned from use on all Singapore registered aircraft.You may find more information in the Air Navigation Order (Paragraph 80(6)). To view the full list of FAQs under each topic, please click on the specific topic above. To view the full list of FAQs under each topic, please click on the specific topic above. 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