Impact of Climate Change & Adaptation Measures
Singapore's Nationally Determined Contribution
Frequently Asked Questions
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Top 5 Most Popular FAQs
Who will be covered under the carbon tax?
The tax will be applied on the total direct emissions of facilities that emit 25,000 tCO
e or more of emissions annually and cover the six greenhouse gases (GHGs) that Singapore is currently reporting to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) as part of our national GHG inventory. This is equivalent to emissions produced by the annual electricity consumption of 12,500 HDB 4-room households. Based on current data, around 30-40 companies will be directly covered.
What is the role of the carbon tax in Singapore’s mitigation strategy?
Singapore's Climate Action Plan sets out four strategies to achieve our pledge: (i) improving energy efficiency, (ii) reducing carbon emissions from power generation, (iii) developing and deploying cutting-edge low-carbon technologies, and (iv) encouraging collective action among government agencies, individuals, businesses, and the community.
A carbon tax will enhance Singapore's existing and planned mitigation efforts under our Climate Action Plan, and stimulate clean technology and market innovation. A tax on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will incentivise emitters to factor in the costs of their GHG emissions in their business decisions. This would encourage companies to improve their energy efficiency and innovate to reduce their GHG emissions.
What are the greenhouse gases covered under the carbon tax?
The six greenhouse gases that will be covered under the carbon tax are: carbon dioxide (CO
), methane (CH
), nitrous oxide (N
O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF
Is it true that Singapore has a very high carbon footprint?
Carbon footprint accounting usually attributes the embodied carbon emissions of imports to the importing country. This methodology deviates from the internationally-accepted carbon accounting methodology of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), whereby embodied emissions on imported goods accrue to the exporting country instead.
Given our limited land area and scarce natural resources, Singapore is heavily-reliant on imports of food, materials and goods to sustain daily living and economic activity. While we can reduce consumption, improve operational efficiency and reduce the carbon footprint of activities taking place within Singapore, we have no control over the production and transport of imports - and their embodied carbon emissions.
Some reports also allocate international marine and aviation bunker emissions to each country in proportion to the country's share of international trade volume. This results in a gross over-estimation of Singapore's carbon footprint as Singapore sits on a vital global shipping route and has one of the busiest transhipment ports in the world. The UNFCCC accounts for international bunkers as a separate category without assigning the emissions to individual countries.
What is the main greenhouse gas emitted in Singapore?
The most significant greenhouse gas emitted in Singapore is carbon dioxide, primarily produced by the burning of fossil fuels to generate energy used in the industry, building, household and transport sectors. Details of Singapore's greenhouse gas inventory can be found in Singapore's
Biennial Update Report
to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
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